|Title||Effect of Charge-Transfer State Energy on Charge Generation Efficiency via Singlet Fission in Pentacene-Fullerene Solar Cells|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||R.EM Willems, S.CJ Meskers, M.M Wienk, R.AJ Janssen|
|Journal||Journal of Physical Chemistry C, The|
Singlet fission in pentacene creates two triplet excitons per absorbed photon. In a solar cell, each triplet can generate an electron-hole pair, and hence, external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100% have been reported for pentacene-fullerene solar cells. The energetics of this process are intriguing because the minimum photon enerfy loss, defined as the energy difference between the (triplet) exciton state and the open-circuit voltage, is less than 0.5 eV and distinctively smaller than that in most organic donor-acceptor solar cells. To investigate the energetics of this process, we analyze the effect of the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) for different fullerene derivatives. With the LUMO energy becoming less negative, the open-circuit voltage increases and charge generation decreases. For all but one of the fullerenes tested, the charge-transfer state energy is distinctively higher than the pentacene triplet energy, revealing that charge generation via singlet fission is actually endergonic. An elementary Marcus model for the rate of electron transfer provides a qualitative description of the experimental trends, in accordance with an endergonic charge transfer. Considering that charge generation from triplet states is endergonic, involvement of pentacene singlet states, either from direct photoexcitation or via triplet-triplet annihilation, cannot be excluded.
|Alternate Title||J. Phys. Chem. C|
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