Magnum-PSI is the only device that can currently study plasma-wall interactions under plasma and neutral conditions matching those expected in the ITER divertor. This is not only important for testing divertor materials, but also for understanding and reliably extrapolating to the basic plasma processes in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, due to the fundamentally different magnetic configurations, plasma conditions in reactor divertors cannot be derived from Magnum-PSI experiments alone.
This project focuses initially on JET modelling using the JINTRAC suite of codes. JINTRAC combines core transport with semi-empirical or first-principle-based turbulence models, neoclassical transport, and edge coupled fluid and Monte-Carlo neutral modelling for the SOL and divertor (EDGE2D-Eirene). The core and edge are coupled through boundary conditions at the separatrix. Experiments are analysed, where light (e.g. N) and heavy (e.g.
Successful operation of the ITER tokamak requires divertor operation in a detached plasma regime, in order to reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates to below the technological limits of actively-cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs), namely 10 MW/m2 at the plasma facing surfaces. The power that arrives at the divertor plates is transported through the sheath. The sheath acts to transfer energy from electrons to ions via electrostatic acceleration, in turn affecting the upstream plasma temperatures (i.e.
Successful operation of the ITER tokamak requires divertor operation in a detached plasma regime, in order to reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates to below the technological limits of actively-cooled plasma-facing components, namely 10 MW/m2.
To operate fusion reactors efficiently, a high confinement is needed. Above a certain threshold in input heating power, a tokamak plasma spontaneously makes a transition from a low confinement (L-mode) regime, to a high confinement (H-mode) regime, almost doubling the confinement. This H-mode regime is presently the main scenario to operate tokamaks, and necessary to obtain a positive energy balance in future reactors. The gain in confinement in H-mode is caused by the development of a region of steep temperature and density gradients at the plasma edge, the so called H-mode pedestal.
Strong-light matter coupling has emerged as a major cross-disciplinary field of study over recent years. This regime was originally constrained to the realm of low-temperature studies, however, extensions to room temperature through advances in the fabrication of nanophotonic structures have opened the door for numerous new research lines. In this manner, strong-coupling has been proposed as a means for modifying the internal physics of condensed matter systems, with great potential for light-harvesting, energy-transport and catalysis.
Strong-light matter coupling has emerged as a major cross-disciplinary field of study over recent years. This regime was originally constrained to the realm of low-temperature studies, however, extensions to room temperature through advances in the fabrication of nanophotonic structures have opened the door for numerous new research lines.
Two dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, black phosphorous, and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit fascinating physical properties due to their specific band structure and reduced dimensionality. In recent years, TMDs (MX2, where M = Mo, W and X = S, Se) particularly are of much interest from a fundamental point of view but they also provide an excellent platform for ultrathin optoelectronic and photonic devices.
The discovery of new energy materials is becoming a large-scale challenge that is far beyond the reach of experimentation but also stretching the limits of conventional computation. At DIFFER; we are working on to improve the speed and the prediction power of computation for the discovery of new solar energy conversion and energy storage materials.
Encapsulation foils are highly demanded in the production of flexible devices such as thin film transistors (TFT), organic LEDs, solar cells and so on. To bring this technology to commercial manufacturing phase, the thin film performance should be further improved and the throughput should be increased. Atmospheric-pressure PECVD is regarded as a promising tool to achieve these industrial targets because of its capability of the roll-to-roll processing and precise control over the thin film properties.