|Title||Radiative type-III ELMy H-mode in all-tungsten ASDEX Upgrade|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Authors||J. Rapp, A. Kallenbach, R. Neu, T. Eich, R. Fischer, A. Herrmann, S. Potzel, G.J van Rooij, J.J Zielinski, ASDEX-Upgrade Team|
The type-III ELMy H-mode might be the solution for an integrated ITER operation scenario fulfilling the fusion power amplification factor (output fusion power to input heating power) of Q = 10 with simultaneous acceptable steady-state and transient power loads to the plasma-facing components. This highly radiative type-III ELMy H-mode is achieved by nitrogen seeding. Experiments on the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade, in which all plasma-facing components are coated with tungsten, showed favourable confinement conditions ( H 98( y ,2) = 1) at high plasma pressure ( β N = 2.4). The power load to the plasma-facing components is as low as ≈3 MW m −2 during the peak heat loads due to edge localized modes (ELMs) at high radiative power fractions of f rad ≈ 0.75. In those high-density discharges the central impurity concentration is very low as a result of hollow nitrogen density profiles and minimal erosion of tungsten. The tungsten erosion is not only suppressed in between ELMs, when the divertor is detached, but also during the type-III ELM activity. Such low impurity concentrations in the plasma core might lead to even higher fusion amplification factors in ITER than 10. This is a demonstration of the compatibility of the radiating type-III ELMy H-mode with a tungsten divertor and main chamber wall, with sufficient confinement and favourable power exhaust characteristics. Together with previous results in all-carbon devices this demonstration strengthens the case for a potential application of a Q = 10 scenario on ITER.
|Alternate Title||Nucl. Fusion|
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