|Title||Characterisation of plasma breakdown at JET with a carbon and ITER-like wall|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||P.C de Vries, A.C.C. Sips, H.T Kim, P.J Lomas, F. Maviglia, R. Albanese, I. Coffey, E. Joffrin, M. Lehnen, A. Manzanares, M. O'Mulane, I. Nunes, G.J van Rooij, F.G Rimini, M.F Stamp, JET-EFDA Contributors|
The recent installation of a full metal, ITER-like, first wall provided the opportunity to study the impact of the plasma-facing materials on plasma initiation or breakdown. This study for the first time presents a full experimental characterisation of tokamak breakdown at JET, using all discharges since 2008, covering both operations with a main chamber carbon and a beryllium ITER-like main chamber wall. It was found that the avalanche phase was unaffected by the change in wall material. However, changes in out-gassing by the wall and lower carbon levels resulted in better controlled density and significantly lower radiation during the burn-through phase with the ITER-like wall. Breakdown failures, that usually developed with a carbon wall during the burn-through phase (especially after disruptions) were absent with the ITER-like wall. These observations match with the results obtained from a new model of plasma burn-through that includes plasma–surface interactions (Kim et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0029-5515/52/10/103016] 103016 ). This shows that chemical sputtering of carbon is the determining factor for the impurity content, and hence also radiation, during the burn-through phase for operations with a carbon wall. As seen experimentally, with a beryllium main wall, the plasma surface effects predicted by the model do not raise the radiation levels much above those expected for pure deuterium plasmas. With the ITER-like wall, operation with higher pre-fill pressures, and thus higher breakdown densities, was possible, which helped maintaining the density after breakdown.
|Alternate Title||Nucl. Fusion|
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