|Title||Research status and issues of tungsten plasma facing materials for ITER and beyond|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Y. Ueda, J.W Coenen, G. De Temmerman, R.P Doerner, J. Linke, V. Philipps, E. Tsitrone|
|Journal||Fusion Engineering and Design|
|Keywords||ELM-like heat pulse, He bubbles, ITER, Plasma facing materials, Tungsten|
This review summarizes surface morphology changes of tungsten caused by heat and particle loadings from edge plasmas, and their effects on enhanced erosion and material lifetime in ITER and beyond. Pulsed heat loadings by transients (disruption and ELM) are the largest concerns due to surface melting, cracking, and dust formation. Hydrogen induced blistering is unlikely to be an issue of ITER. Helium bombardment would cause surface morphology changes such as W fuzz, He holes, and nanometric bubble layers, which could lead to enhanced erosion (e.g. unipolar arcing of W fuzz). Particle loadings could enhance pulsed heat effects (cracking and erosion) due to surface layer embrittlement by nanometric bubbles and solute atoms. But pulsed heat loadings alleviate surfaces morphology changes in some cases (He holes by ELM-like heat pulses). Effects of extremely high fluence (∼1030 m−2), mixed materials, and neutron irradiation are important issues to be pursued for ITER and beyond. In addition, surface refurbishment to prolong material lifetime is also an important issue.
|Alternate Title||Fusion Eng. Des.|
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