|Title||Optimization of tungsten castellated structures for the ITER divertor|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||A. Litnovsky, M. Hellwig, D. Matveev, M. Komm, M. van den Berg, G. De Temmerman, D. Rudakov, F. Ding, G.N Luo, K. Krieger, K. Sugiyama, R.A. Pitts, P. Petersson|
|Journal||Journal of Nuclear Materials|
|Pagination||174 - 179|
In ITER, the plasma-facing components (PFCs) of the first wall and the divertor armor will be castellated to improve their thermo-mechanical stability and to limit forces due to induced currents. The fuel accumulation in the gaps may significantly contribute to the in-vessel fuel inventory. Castellation shaping may be the most straightforward way to minimize the fuel inventory and to alleviate the thermal loads onto castellations. A new castellation shape was proposed and comparative modeling of conventional (rectangular) and shaped castellation was performed for ITER conditions. Shaped castellation was predicted to be capable to operate under stationary heat load of 20 MW/m2. An 11-fold decrease of beryllium (Be) content in the gaps of the shaped cells alone with a 7-fold decrease of carbon content was predicted. In order to validate the predictive capabilities of modeling tools used for ITER conditions, the dedicated modeling with the same codes was made for existing tokamaks and benchmarked with the results of multi-machine experiments. For the castellations exposed in TEXTOR and DIII-D, the carbon amount in the gaps of shaped cells was 1.9–2.3 times smaller than that of rectangular ones. Modeling for TEXTOR conditions yielded to 1.5-fold decrease of carbon content in the gaps of shaped castellation outlining fair agreement with the experiment. At the same time, a number of processes, like enhanced erosion of molten layer yet need to be implemented in the codes in order to increase the accuracy of predictions for ITER.
|Alternate Title||J. Nucl. Mater.|
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