Surface-limited deuterium uptake of Ru films under plasma exposure

TitleSurface-limited deuterium uptake of Ru films under plasma exposure
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsS. Wang, E. Zoethout, M. van Kampen, T.W. Morgan
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Date Published12/2023

Blister formation has been an emerging research topic for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mirrors exposed to hydrogen plasmas. Similar to plasma-facing materials in nuclear fusion reactors, it has been reported that blister formation in EUV mirrors is initiated by hydrogen uptake due to hydrogen ion or atom bombardment. However, the research so far has focused on Mo/Si multilayers exposed to only hydrogen ions or atoms, while the EUV mirror typically has a Ru capping layer facing hydrogen plasmas. We present experimental work to measure plasma-induced hydrogen uptake of Ru films. We bombarded our designed Ru-capped target with a low-temperature deuterium plasma and measured the deuterium retention using elastic recoil detection. Contrary to ion-driven deuterium uptake, the deuterium uptake rate of the Ru film had no dependence on the deuterium ion flux or energy after a period of plasma exposure. A reaction–diffusion model has been built to calculate the time evolution of deuterium retention, which well fits the experimental data. Based on this model, we conclude that the surface composition of the Ru film is the limiting factor for the deuterium uptake, which is seriously weakened when the surface is covered by Ru oxide. After the Ru oxide is reduced by the plasma, the uptake rate is predominantly driven by the deuterium surface coverage on metallic Ru. Our model also indicates that at the deuterium-populated Ru surface, deuterium has a low absorption barrier to penetrate the surface, which is supported by previously reported computational work.







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Alternate TitleJ. Appl. Phys.

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