Model-based impurity emission front control using deuterium fueling and nitrogen seeding in TCV

TitleModel-based impurity emission front control using deuterium fueling and nitrogen seeding in TCV
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsJ.T.W Koenders, A. Perek, B. Kool, O. Fevrier, T. Ravensbergen, C. Galperti, B.P. Duval, C. Theiler, M. van Berkel, TCV team, EUROfusion MST1 Team
JournalNuclear Fusion

This paper presents the first result using nitrogen-seeded exhaust feedback control of the NII impurity emission front in TCV. The NII emission front position is consistently located below its commonly used CIII counterpart, indicating the NII emission front is representative of a colder plasma region. We demonstrate control of the NII impurity emission front position for two cases: 1) using nitrogen seeding as the sole actuator, and 2) using deuterium fueling as an actuator while injecting a small amount of nitrogen that remains a trace impurity. For sole nitrogen actuation, peak target current density is significantly reduced when the NII emission front approaches the x-point (~ 50% for the NII front at the halfway point). When actuating with deuterium, peak target current density is less affected, which is explained by changes in fueling engendering a different scrape-off-layer plasma density. Perturbative (system identification) experiments show that nitrogen actuation induces a stronger, but slower, response of the NII emission front than deuterium actuation. Moving the NII emission front back to the target after pushing it towards the x-point is proven difficult, where both the NII front position and total radiated power do not reach pre-seeding conditions within the discharge time following termination of nitrogen injection. This result highlights the need to account for impurity retention for such seeded discharges in exhaust control strategies.





Alternate TitleNucl. Fusion

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