|Title||The X-Point radiating regime at ASDEX Upgrade and TCV|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2023|
|Authors||M. Bernert, S. Wiesen, O. Fevrier, A. Kallenbach, J.T.W Koenders, B. Sieglin, T.O.S.J. Bosman, B. Kool, M. van Berkel, T.A. Wijkamp, U. Stroth, D. Brida, M. Cavedon, P. David, M.G. Dunne, S. Henderson, T. Lunt, R.M. McDermott, O. Pan, A. Perek, H. Reimerdes, U. Sheikh, C. Theiler, M. Wischmeier, EUROfusion MST1 Team, TCV team, ASDEX Upgrade Team|
|Journal||Nuclear Materials and Energy|
Future fusion reactors require a safe, steady-state divertor operation. With deep divertor detachment, which is typically induced by impurity seeding, the radiation concentrates in a small region at the X-point or on closed flux surfaces above the X-point. This so-called X-point radiator (XPR) moves further inside the confined region with increasing seeding and the location can be actively controlled. At AUG, the parameter space for operation with an XPR was significantly extended, using active feedback on the XPR location. The XPR is observed in nearly the whole operational space of AUG in the high-densities or high collisionality regime. ELM suppression is consistently observed in all cases where the XPR was moved to a significant height above the X-point. Direct measurements of density and temperature from the region around the XPR using the new divertor Thomson scattering system at AUG indicate that the temperature at the location of the XPR remains high (>30eV) and only the region towards the X-point cools down further. In this cold XPR core, the temperature reduces to about 1eV. An XPR is also observed in TCV by the injection of nitrogen as extrinsic impurity. This highlights that the wall material (W for AUG, C for TCV) or machine size does not play a significant role for the existence of the regime. However, the scenario appears to be less stable in TCV. First experiments show the necessity of an active control for the XPR: Depending on the wall conditions and the nitrogen wall storage, the required nitrogen seeding level to achieve an XPR changes. Both, the low temperatures measured radially outside of the radiation zone at AUG, and the lower stability of the XPR regime at TCV with the presence of carbon are consistent with the predictions of a one-dimensional model of the XPR. However, the model would predict the development of the cold XPR core, and significant radiation at the X-point might already exist before reaching this cold temperature solution.
|Alternate Title||Nucl. Mater. Energy|
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