|Title||Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2009|
|Authors||B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W.A Gillespie, S.P Jamison, A.M MacLeod, A.FG van der Meer, P.J Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmuser|
|Journal||Physical Review Special Topics-Accelerators and Beams|
|Type of Article||Article|
Precise measurements of the temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of ultraviolet and x-ray free-electron lasers. The electro-optic (EO) technique has been applied for a single-shot direct visualization of the time profile of individual electron bunches at FLASH. This paper presents a thorough description of the experimental setup and the results. An absolute calibration of the EO technique has been performed utilizing simultaneous measurements with a transverse-deflecting radio-frequency structure that transforms the longitudinal bunch charge distribution into a transverse streak. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed using a gallium-phosphide (GaP) crystal, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the physical limit imposed by the EO material properties. The data are in quantitative agreement with a numerical simulation of the EO detection process.
|URL||<Go to ISI>://000266697100014|
|Alternate Title||Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.-Accel. Beams|
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