|Title||Deuterium trapping and surface modification of polycrystalline tungsten exposed to a high-flux plasma at high fluences|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||M. Zibrov, M. Balden, T.W Morgan, M. Mayer|
Deuterium (D) retention and surface modifications of hot-rolled polycrystalline tungsten (W) exposed to a low-energy ( 40 eV D −1 ), high-flux (2–5 × 10 23 D m −2 s −1 ) D plasma at temperatures of 380 K and 1140 K to fluences up to 1.2 × 10 28 D m −2 have been examined by using nuclear reaction analysis, thermal desorption spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The samples exposed at 380 K exhibited various types of surface modifications: dome-shaped blister-like structures, stepped flat-topped protrusions, and various types of nanostructures. It was observed that a large fraction of the surface was covered with blisters and protrusions, but their average size and the number density showed almost no fluence dependence. The D depth distributions and total D inventories also barely changed with increasing fluence at 380 K. A substantial amount of D was retained in the subsurface region, and thickness correlated with the depth where the cavities of blisters and protrusions were located. It is therefore suggested that defects appearing during creation of blisters and protrusions govern the D trapping in the investigated fluence range. In addition, a large number of small cracks was observed on the exposed surfaces, which can serve as fast D release channels towards the surface, resulting in a reduction of the effective D influx into the W bulk. On the samples exposed at 1140 K no blisters and protrusions were found. However, wave-like and faceted terrace-like structures were formed instead. The concentrations of trapped D were very low (<10 −5 at. fr.) after the exposure at 1140 K.
|Alternate Title||Nucl. Fusion|
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