DIFFER Publication

Efficient training sets for surrogate models of tokamak turbulence with Active Deep Ensembles


Model-based plasma scenario development lies at the heart of the design and operation of future fusion powerplants. Including turbulent transport in integrated models is essential for delivering a successful roadmap towards operation of ITER and the design of DEMO-class devices. Given the highly iterative nature of integrated models, fast machine-learning-based surrogates of turbulent transport are fundamental to fulfil the pressing need for faster simulations opening up pulse design, optimization, and flight simulator applications. A significant bottleneck is the generation of suitably large training datasets covering a large volume in parameter space, which can be prohibitively expensive to obtain for higher fidelity codes. In this work, we propose ADEPT (Active Deep Ensembles for Plasma Turbulence), a physics-informed, two-stage Active Learning strategy to ease this challenge. Active Learning queries a given model by means of an acquisition function that identifies regions where additional data would improve the surrogate model. We provide a benchmark study using available data from the literature for the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model. We demonstrate quantitatively that the physics-informed nature of the proposed workflow reduces the need to perform simulations in stable regions of the parameter space, resulting in significantly improved data efficiency compared to non-physics informed approaches which consider a regression problem over the whole domain. We show an up to a factor of 20 reduction in training dataset size needed to achieve the same performance as random sampling. We then validate the surrogates on multichannel integrated modelling of ITG-dominated JET scenarios and demonstrate that they recover the performance of QuaLiKiz to better than 10%. This matches the performance obtained in previous work, but with two orders of magnitude fewer training data points.

Year of Publication
Nuclear Fusion
Number of Pages
Alternate Journal
Nucl. Fusion
Journal Article
Download citation