The paraxial WKB code TORBEAM (Poli, 2001) is widely used for the description of electron-cyclotron waves in fusion plasmas, retaining diffraction effects through the solution of a set of ordinary differential equations. With respect to its original form, the code has undergone significant transformations and extensions, in terms of both the physical model and the spectrum of applications. The code has been rewritten in Fortran 90 and transformed into a library, which can be called from within different (not necessarily Fortran-based) workflows. The models for both absorption and current drive have been extended, including e.g. fully-relativistic calculation of the absorption coefficient, momentum conservation in electron{\textendash}electron collisions and the contribution of more than one harmonic to current drive. The code can be run also for reflectometry applications, with relativistic corrections for the electron mass. Formulas that provide the coupling between the reflected beam and the receiver have been developed. Accelerated versions of the code are available, with the reduced physics goal of inferring the location of maximum absorption (including or not the total driven current) for a given setting of the launcher mirrors. Optionally, plasma volumes within given flux surfaces and corresponding values of minimum and maximum magnetic field can be provided externally to speed up the calculation of full driven-current profiles. These can be employed in real-time control algorithms or for fast data analysis.

}, keywords = {Electron cyclotron waves, Magnetic confinement, Paraxial beam tracing, Plasma physics, Wave-plasma interactions}, doi = {10.1016/j.cpc.2017.12.018}, author = {Poli, E. and Bock, A. and Lochbrunner, M. and Maj, O. and Reich, M. and Snicker, A. and Stegmeir, A. and Volpe, F. and Bertelli, N. and Westerhof, E. and Bilato, R. and Conway, G. D. and Farina, D. and Felici, F. and Figini, L. and Fischer, R. and Galperti, C. and Happel, T. and Lin-Liu, Y. R. and Marushchenko, N. B. and U. Mszanowski and Poli, F. M. and Stober, J. and Zille, R. and Peeters, A. G. and Pereverzev, G. V.} } @article {2484, title = {Summary of EC-17: the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (Deurne, The Netherlands, 7-10 May 2012)}, journal = {Nuclear Fusion}, volume = {53}, year = {2013}, month = {Feb}, pages = {027002}, abstract = {An overview is given of the papers presented at the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The meeting covered all aspects of the research field ranging from theory to enabling technologies. From the workshop, advanced control by electron cyclotron heating and current drive is emerging as probably the main application of ECRH in fusion devices. Large progress is reported from various experiments on real-time control applications. At the same time ECE is developing into a multi-dimensional plasma diagnostic taking advantage of new technological developments. The resulting multi-dimensional ECE data reveal exciting new details of the complicated plasma dynamics in fusion devices.

}, isbn = {0029-5515}, doi = {10.1088/0029-5515/53/2/027002}, author = {Westerhof, E. and Austin, M. E. and Kubo, S. and Lin-Liu, Y. R. and Plaum, B.} } @article {1681, title = {Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions}, journal = {Nuclear Fusion}, volume = {48}, number = {3}, year = {2008}, note = {ISI Document Delivery No.: 290GOTimes Cited: 1Cited Reference Count: 30}, month = {Mar}, pages = {11}, type = {Article}, abstract = {Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories worldwide. A detailed comparison of these codes is desirable since they use a variety of methods for modelling the behaviour and effects of the waves. The approach used in this benchmarking study is to apply these codes to a small number of representative cases. Following minor remedial work on some codes, the agreement between codes for off-axis application is excellent. The largest systematic differences are found between codes with weakly relativistic and fully relativistic evaluation of the resonance condition, but even there the differences amount to less than 0.02 in normalized minor radius. For some other cases, for example for central current drive, the code results may differ significantly due to differences in the physics models used.}, keywords = {ABSORPTION, BEAM, DIII-D, EFFICIENCY, PLASMAS, PROPAGATION, TOKAMAKS, WAVES}, isbn = {0029-5515}, url = {