TY - JOUR
T1 - Plasma–wall interaction studies within the EUROfusion consortium: progress on plasma-facing components development and qualification
JF - Nuclear Fusion
Y1 - 2017
A1 - Brezinsek, S.
A1 - Coenen, J. W.
A1 - Schwartz-Selinger, T.
A1 - Schmid, K.
A1 - Kirschner, A.
A1 - Hakola, A.
A1 - Tabares, F. L.
A1 - van der Meiden, H. J.
A1 - Mayoral, M.
A1 - Reinhart, M.
A1 - Tsitrone, E.
A1 - Vernimmen, J. W. M.
A1 - Morgan, T. W.
A1 - Ahlgren, T.
A1 - Aints, M.
A1 - Airila, M.
A1 - Almaviva, S.
A1 - Alves, E.
A1 - Angot, T.
A1 - Anita, V.
A1 - R. Arredondo Parra
A1 - Aumayr, F.
A1 - Balden, M.
A1 - Bauer, J.
A1 - Ben Yaala, M.
A1 - Berger, B. M.
A1 - Bisson, R.
A1 - Björkas, C.
A1 - Bogdanovic Radovic, I.
A1 - Borodin, D.
A1 - Bucalossi, J.
A1 - Butikova, J.
A1 - Butoi, B.
A1 - Cadez, I.
A1 - Caniello, R.
A1 - Caneve, L.
A1 - Cartry, G.
A1 - Catarino, N.
A1 - Čekada, M.
A1 - Ciraolo, G.
A1 - Ciupinski, L.
A1 - Colao, F.
A1 - Corre, Y.
A1 - Costin, C.
A1 - Craciunescu, T.
A1 - Cremona, A.
A1 - de Angeli, M.
A1 - de Castro, A.
A1 - Dejarnac, R.
A1 - Dellasega, D.
A1 - Dinca, P.
A1 - Dittmar, T.
A1 - Dobrea, C.
A1 - Hansen, P.
A1 - Drenik, A.
A1 - Eich, T.
A1 - Elgeti, S.
A1 - Falie, D.
A1 - Fedorczak, N.
A1 - Ferro, Y.
A1 - Fornal, T.
A1 - Fortuna, E.
A1 - Gao, L.
A1 - Gasior, P.
A1 - Gherendi, M.
A1 - Ghezzi, F.
A1 - Gosar, Z.
A1 - Greuner, H.
A1 - Grigore, E.
A1 - Grisolia, C.
A1 - Groth, M.
A1 - Gruca, M.
A1 - Grzonka, J.
A1 - Gunn, J. P.
A1 - Hassouni, K.
A1 - Heinola, K.
A1 - Höschen, T.
A1 - Huber, S.
A1 - Jacob, W.
A1 - Jepu, I.
A1 - Jiang, X.
A1 - Jogi, I.
A1 - Kaiser, A.
A1 - Karhunen, J.
A1 - Kelemen, M.
A1 - Köppen, M.
A1 - Koslowski, H. R.
A1 - Kreter, A.
A1 - Kubkowska, M.
A1 - Laan, M.
A1 - Laguardia, L.
A1 - Lahtinen, A.
A1 - Lasa, A.
A1 - Lazic, V.
A1 - Lemahieu, N.
A1 - Likonen, J.
A1 - Linke, J.
A1 - Litnovsky, A.
A1 - Linsmeier, C.
A1 - Loewenhoff, T.
A1 - Lungu, C.
A1 - Lungu, M.
A1 - Maddaluno, G.
A1 - Maier, H.
A1 - Makkonen, T.
A1 - Manhard, A.
A1 - Marandet, Y.
A1 - Markelj, S.
A1 - Marot, L.
A1 - Martin, C.
A1 - Martin-Rojo, A. B.
A1 - Martynova, Y.
A1 - Mateus, R.
A1 - Matveev, D.
A1 - Mayer, M.
A1 - Meisl, G.
A1 - Mellet, N.
A1 - Michau, A.
A1 - Miettunen, J.
A1 - Möller, S.
A1 - Mougenot, J.
A1 - Mozetic, M.
A1 - Nemanič, V.
A1 - Neu, R.
A1 - Nordlund, K.
A1 - Oberkofler, M.
A1 - Oyarzabal, E.
A1 - Panjan, M.
A1 - Pardanaud, C.
A1 - Paris, P.
A1 - Passoni, M.
A1 - Pegourie, B.
A1 - Pelicon, P.
A1 - Petersson, P.
A1 - Piip, K.
A1 - Pintsuk, G.
A1 - Pompilian, G. O.
A1 - Popa, G.
A1 - Porosnicu, C.
A1 - Primc, G.
A1 - Probst, M.
A1 - Räisänen, J.
A1 - Rasinski, M.
A1 - Ratynskaia, S.
A1 - Reiser, D.
A1 - Ricci, D.
A1 - Richou, M.
A1 - Riesch, J.
A1 - Riva, G.
A1 - Rosinski, M.
A1 - Roubin, P.
A1 - Rubel, M.
A1 - Ruset, C.
A1 - Safi, E.
A1 - Sergienko, G.
A1 - Siketic, Z.
A1 - Sima, A.
A1 - Spilker, B.
A1 - Stadlmayr, R.
A1 - Steudel, I.
A1 - Ström, P.
A1 - Tadic, T.
A1 - Tafalla, D.
A1 - Tale, I.
A1 - Terentyev, D.
A1 - Terra, A.
A1 - Tiron, V.
A1 - Tiseanu, I.
A1 - Tolias, P.
A1 - Tskhakaya, D.
A1 - Uccello, A.
A1 - Unterberg, B.
A1 - Uytdenhoven, I.
A1 - Vassallo, E.
A1 - Vavpetic, P.
A1 - Veis, P.
A1 - Velicu, I. L.
A1 - Voitkans, A.
A1 - von Toussaint, U.
A1 - Weckmann, A.
A1 - Wirtz, M.
A1 - Zaloznik, A.
A1 - Zaplotnik, R.
A1 - WP PFC contributors
AB - The provision of a particle and power exhaust solution which is compatible with first-wall components and edge-plasma conditions is a key area of present-day fusion research and mandatory for a successful operation of ITER and DEMO. The work package plasma-facing components (WP PFC) within the European fusion programme complements with laboratory experiments, i.e. in linear plasma devices, electron and ion beam loading facilities, the studies performed in toroidally confined magnetic devices, such as JET, ASDEX Upgrade, WEST etc. The connection of both groups is done via common physics and engineering studies, including the qualification and specification of plasma-facing components, and by modelling codes that simulate edge-plasma conditions and the plasma–material interaction as well as the study of fundamental processes. WP PFC addresses these critical points in order to ensure reliable and efficient use of conventional, solid PFCs in ITER (Be and W) and DEMO (W and steel) with respect to heat-load capabilities (transient and steady-state heat and particle loads), lifetime estimates (erosion, material mixing and surface morphology), and safety aspects (fuel retention, fuel removal, material migration and dust formation) particularly for quasi-steady-state conditions. Alternative scenarios and concepts (liquid Sn or Li as PFCs) for DEMO are developed and tested in the event that the conventional solution turns out to not be functional. Here, we present an overview of the activities with an emphasis on a few key results: (i) the observed synergistic effects in particle and heat loading of ITER-grade W with the available set of exposition devices on material properties such as roughness, ductility and microstructure; (ii) the progress in understanding of fuel retention, diffusion and outgassing in different W-based materials, including the impact of damage and impurities like N; and (iii), the preferential sputtering of Fe in EUROFER steel providing an in situ W surface and a potential first-wall solution for DEMO.
VL - 57
IS - 11
U1 - PSI
U2 - PMI
U5 - 4f90e0cf51291a6cb8b6e575c66f5043
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Development of ITER relevant laser techniques for deposited layer characterisation and tritium inventory
JF - Journal of Nuclear Materials
Y1 - 2013
A1 - Malaquias, A.
A1 - Philipps, V.
A1 - Huber, A.
A1 - Hakola, A.
A1 - Likonen, J.
A1 - Kolehmainen, J.
A1 - Tervakangas, S.
A1 - Aints, M.
A1 - Paris, P.
A1 - Laan, M.
A1 - Lissovski, A.
A1 - Almaviva, S.
A1 - Caneve, L.
A1 - Colao, F.
A1 - Maddaluno, G.
A1 - Kubkowska, M.
A1 - Gasior, P.
A1 - van der Meiden, H. J.
A1 - Lof, A. R.
A1 - Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A.
A1 - Petersson, P.
A1 - Rubel, M.
A1 - Fortuna, E.
A1 - Xiao, Q.
AB - Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a potential candidate to monitor the layer composition and fuel retention during and after plasma shots on specific locations of the main chamber and divertor of ITER. This method is being investigated in a cooperative research programme on plasma devices such as TEXTOR, FTU, MAGNUM-PSI and in other various laboratorial experiments. In this paper LIBS results from targets of D–H-rich carbon films and mixed W–Al–C deposits on bulk tungsten substrates are reported (simulating ITER-like deposits with Al as proxy for Be). Two independent methods, one to determine the relative elemental composition and the other the absolute contents of the target based on the experimental LIBS signals are proposed. The results show that LIBS has the capability to provide the relative concentrations of the elements on the deposited layer when the experimental conditions on the targets surface are identical to the calibration samples.
VL - 438, Supplement
UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311513002110
N1 - Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices
U1 - PSI
U2 - PSI-E
U5 - e7ed69925e490db0c5d4d4131015ac76
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Development of laser-based techniques for in situ characterization of the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices
JF - Nuclear Fusion
Y1 - 2013
A1 - Philipps, V.
A1 - Malaquias, A.
A1 - Hakola, A.
A1 - Karhunen, J.
A1 - Maddaluno, G.
A1 - Almaviva, S.
A1 - Caneve, L.
A1 - Colao, F.
A1 - Fortuna, E.
A1 - Gasior, P.
A1 - Kubkowska, M.
A1 - Czarnecka, A.
A1 - Laan, M.
A1 - Lissovski, A.
A1 - Paris, P.
A1 - van der Meiden, H. J.
A1 - Petersson, P.
A1 - Rubel, M.
A1 - Huber, A.
A1 - Zlobinski, M.
A1 - Schweer, B.
A1 - Gierse, N.
A1 - Xiao, Q.
A1 - Sergienko, G.
AB - Analysis and understanding of wall erosion, material transport and fuel retention are among the most important tasks for ITER and future devices, since these questions determine largely the lifetime and availability of the fusion reactor. These data are also of extreme value to improve the understanding and validate the models of the in vessel build-up of the T inventory in ITER and future D–T devices. So far, research in these areas is largely supported by post-mortem analysis of wall tiles. However, access to samples will be very much restricted in the next-generation devices (such as ITER, JT-60SA, W7-X, etc) with actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFC) and increasing duty cycle. This has motivated the development of methods to measure the deposition of material and retention of plasma fuel on the walls of fusion devices in situ , without removal of PFC samples. For this purpose, laser-based methods are the most promising candidates. Their feasibility has been assessed in a cooperative undertaking in various European associations under EFDA coordination. Different laser techniques have been explored both under laboratory and tokamak conditions with the emphasis to develop a conceptual design for a laser-based wall diagnostic which is integrated into an ITER port plug, aiming to characterize in situ relevant parts of the inner wall, the upper region of the inner divertor, part of the dome and the upper X-point region.
VL - 53
UR - http://stacks.iop.org/0029-5515/53/i=9/a=093002
IS - 9
U1 - PSI
U2 - PSI-E
U5 - 353c9c09df896accf5452e82844866bf
ER -