TY - JOUR
T1 - Fusion Energy-Production from a Deuterium-Tritium Plasma in the Jet Tokamak
JF - Nuclear Fusion
Y1 - 1992
A1 - Rebut, P. H.
A1 - Gibson, A.
A1 - Huguet, M.
A1 - Adams, J. M.
A1 - Alper, B.
A1 - Altmann, H.
A1 - Andersen, A.
A1 - Andrew, P.
A1 - Angelone, M.
A1 - Aliarshad, S.
A1 - Baigger, P.
A1 - Bailey, W.
A1 - Balet, B.
A1 - Barabaschi, P.
A1 - Barker, P.
A1 - Barnsley, R.
A1 - Baronian, M.
A1 - Bartlett, D. V.
A1 - Baylor, L.
A1 - Bell, A. C.
A1 - Benali, G.
A1 - Bertoldi, P.
A1 - Bertolini, E.
A1 - Bhatnagar, V.
A1 - Bickley, A. J.
A1 - Binder, D.
A1 - Bindslev, H.
A1 - Bonicelli, T.
A1 - Booth, S. J.
A1 - Bosia, G.
A1 - Botman, M.
A1 - Boucher, D.
A1 - Boucquey, P.
A1 - Breger, P.
A1 - Brelen, H.
A1 - Brinkschulte, H.
A1 - Brooks, D.
A1 - Brown, A.
A1 - Brown, T.
A1 - Brusati, M.
A1 - Bryan, S.
A1 - Brzozowski, J.
A1 - Buchse, R.
A1 - Budd, T.
A1 - Bures, M.
A1 - Businaro, T.
A1 - Butcher, P.
A1 - Buttgereit, H.
A1 - Caldwellnichols, C.
A1 - Campbell, D. J.
A1 - Card, P.
A1 - Celentano, G.
A1 - Challis, C. D.
A1 - Chankin, A. V.
A1 - Cherubini, A.
A1 - Chiron, D.
A1 - Christiansen, J.
A1 - Chuilon, P.
A1 - Claesen, R.
A1 - Clement, S.
A1 - Clipsham, E.
A1 - Coad, J. P.
A1 - Coffey, I. H.
A1 - Colton, A.
A1 - Comiskey, M.
A1 - Conroy, S.
A1 - Cooke, M.
A1 - Cooper, D.
A1 - Cooper, S.
A1 - Cordey, J. G.
A1 - Core, W.
A1 - Corrigan, G.
A1 - Corti, S.
A1 - Costley, A. E.
A1 - Cottrell, G.
A1 - Cox, M.
A1 - Cripwell, P.
A1 - Dacosta, O.
A1 - Davies, J.
A1 - Davies, N.
A1 - de Blank, H.
A1 - De Esch, H.
A1 - Dekock, L.
A1 - Deksnis, E.
A1 - Delvart, F.
A1 - Dennehinnov, G. B.
A1 - Deschamps, G.
A1 - Dickson, W. J.
A1 - Dietz, K. J.
A1 - Dmitrenko, S. L.
A1 - Dmitrieva, M.
A1 - Dobbing, J.
A1 - Doglio, A.
A1 - Dolgetta, N.
A1 - Dorling, S. E.
A1 - Doyle, P. G.
A1 - Duchs, D. F.
A1 - Duquenoy, H.
A1 - Edwards, A.
A1 - Ehrenberg, J.
A1 - Ekedahl, A.
A1 - Elevant, T.
A1 - Erents, S.K.
A1 - Eriksson, L. G.
A1 - Fajemirokun, H.
A1 - Falter, H.
A1 - Freiling, J.
A1 - Freville, F.
A1 - Froger, C.
A1 - Froissard, P.
A1 - Fullard, K.
A1 - Gadeberg, M.
A1 - Galetsas, A.
A1 - Gallagher, T.
A1 - Gambier, D.
A1 - Garribba, M.
A1 - Gaze, P.
A1 - Giannella, R.
A1 - Gill, R. D.
A1 - Girard, A.
A1 - Gondhalekar, A.
A1 - Goodall, D.
A1 - Gormezano, C.
A1 - Gottardi, N. A.
A1 - Gowers, C.
A1 - Green, B. J.
A1 - Grievson, B.
A1 - Haange, R.
A1 - Haigh, A.
A1 - Hancock, C. J.
A1 - Harbour, P. J.
A1 - Hartrampf, T.
A1 - Hawkes, N. C.
A1 - Haynes, P.
A1 - Hemmerich, J. L.
A1 - Hender, T.
A1 - Hoekzema, J.
A1 - Holland, D.
A1 - Hone, M.
A1 - Horton, L.
A1 - How, J.
A1 - Huart, M.
A1 - Hughes, I.
A1 - Hughes, T. P.
A1 - Hugon, M.
A1 - Huo, Y.
A1 - Ida, K.
A1 - Ingram, B.
A1 - Irving, M.
A1 - Jacquinot, J.
A1 - Jaeckel, H.
A1 - Jaeger, J. F.
A1 - Janeschitz, G.
A1 - Jankovicz, Z.
A1 - Jarvis, O. N.
A1 - Jensen, F.
A1 - Jones, E. M.
A1 - Jones, H. D.
A1 - Jones, Lpdf
A1 - Jones, S.
A1 - Jones, T. T. C.
A1 - Junger, J. F.
A1 - Junique, F.
A1 - Kaye, A.
A1 - Keen, B. E.
A1 - Keilhacker, M.
A1 - Kelly, G. J.
A1 - Kerner, W.
A1 - Khudoleev, A.
A1 - Konig, R.
A1 - Konstantellos, A.
A1 - Kovanen, M.
A1 - Kramer, G.
A1 - Kupschus, P.
A1 - Lasser, R.
A1 - Last, J. R.
A1 - Laundy, B.
A1 - Laurotaroni, L.
A1 - Laveyry, M.
A1 - Lawson, K.
A1 - Lennholm, M.
A1 - Lingertat, J.
A1 - Litunovski, R. N.
A1 - Loarte, A.
A1 - Lobel, R.
A1 - Lomas, P.
A1 - Loughlin, M.
A1 - Lowry, C.
A1 - Lupo, J.
A1 - Maas, A. C.
A1 - Machuzak, J.
A1 - Macklin, B.
A1 - Maddison, G.
A1 - Maggi, C. F.
A1 - Magyar, G.
A1 - Mandl, W.
A1 - Marchese, V.
A1 - Marcon, G.
A1 - Marcus, F.
A1 - Mart, J.
A1 - Martin, D.
A1 - Martin, E.
A1 - Martinsolis, R.
A1 - Massmann, P.
A1 - Matthews, G.
A1 - McBryan, H.
A1 - McCracken, G.
A1 - McKivitt, J.
A1 - Meriguet, P.
A1 - Miele, P.
A1 - Miller, A.
A1 - Mills, J.
A1 - Mills, S. F.
A1 - Millward, P.
A1 - Milverton, P.
A1 - Minardi, E.
A1 - Mohanti, R.
A1 - Mondino, P. L.
A1 - Montgomery, D.
A1 - Montvai, A.
A1 - Morgan, P.
A1 - Morsi, H.
A1 - Muir, D.
A1 - Murphy, G.
A1 - Myrnas, R.
A1 - Nave, F.
A1 - Newbert, G.
A1 - Newman, M.
A1 - Nielsen, P.
A1 - Noll, P.
A1 - Obert, W.
A1 - Obrien, D.
A1 - Orchard, J.
A1 - Orourke, J.
A1 - Ostrom, R.
A1 - Ottaviani, M.
A1 - Pain, M.
A1 - Paoletti, F.
A1 - Papastergiou, S.
A1 - Parsons, W.
A1 - Pasini, D.
A1 - Patel, D.
A1 - Peacock, A.
A1 - Peacock, N.
A1 - Pearce, R. J. M.
A1 - Pearson, D.
A1 - Peng, J. F.
A1 - Desilva, R. P.
A1 - Perinic, G.
A1 - Perry, C.
A1 - Petrov, M.
A1 - Pick, M. A.
A1 - Plancoulaine, J.
A1 - Poffe, J. P.
A1 - Pohlchen, R.
A1 - Porcelli, F.
A1 - Porte, L.
A1 - Prentice, R.
A1 - Puppin, S.
A1 - Putvinskii, S.
A1 - Radford, G.
A1 - Raimondi, T.
A1 - Deandrade, M. C. R.
A1 - Reichle, R.
A1 - Reid, J.
A1 - Richards, S.
A1 - Righi, E.
A1 - Rimini, F.
A1 - Robinson, D.
A1 - Rolfe, A.
A1 - Ross, R. T.
A1 - Rossi, L.
A1 - Russ, R.
A1 - Rutter, P.
A1 - Sack, H. C.
A1 - Sadler, G.
A1 - Saibene, G.
A1 - Salanave, J. L.
A1 - Sanazzaro, G.
A1 - Santagiustina, A.
A1 - Sartori, R.
A1 - Sborchia, C.
A1 - Schild, P.
A1 - Schmid, M.
A1 - Schmidt, G.
A1 - Schunke, B.
A1 - Scott, S. M.
A1 - Serio, L.
A1 - Sibley, A.
A1 - Simonini, R.
A1 - Sips, A.C.C.
A1 - Smeulders, P.
A1 - Smith, R.
A1 - Stagg, R.
A1 - Stamp, M.
A1 - Stangeby, P.
A1 - Stankiewicz, R.
A1 - Start, D. F.
A1 - Steed, C. A.
A1 - Stork, D.
A1 - Stott, P.E.
A1 - Stubberfield, P.
A1 - Summers, D.
A1 - Summers, H.
A1 - Svensson, L.
A1 - Tagle, J. A.
A1 - Talbot, M.
A1 - Tanga, A.
A1 - Taroni, A.
A1 - Terella, C.
A1 - Terrington, A.
A1 - Tesini, A.
A1 - Thomas, P. R.
A1 - Thompson, E.
A1 - Thomsen, K.
A1 - Tibone, F.
A1 - Tiscornia, A.
A1 - Trevalion, P.
A1 - Tubbing, B.
A1 - Vanbelle, P.
A1 - Vanderbeken, H.
A1 - Vlases, G.
A1 - von Hellermann, M.
A1 - Wade, T.
A1 - Walker, C.
A1 - Walton, R.
A1 - Ward, D.
A1 - Watkins, M. L.
A1 - Watkins, N.
A1 - Watson, M. J.
A1 - Weber, S.
A1 - Wesson, J.
A1 - Wijnands, T. J.
A1 - Wilks, J.
A1 - Wilson, D.
A1 - Winkel, T.
A1 - Wolf, R.
A1 - Wong, D.
A1 - Woodward, C.
A1 - Wu, Y.
A1 - Wykes, M.
A1 - Young, D.
A1 - Young, I. D.
A1 - Zannelli, L.
A1 - Zolfaghari, A.
A1 - Zwingmann, W.
AB - The paper describes a series of experiments in the Joint European Torus (JET), culminating in the first tokamak discharges in deuterium-tritium fuelled mixtures. The experiments were undertaken within limits imposed by restrictions on vessel activation and tritium usage. The objectives were: (i) to produce more than one megawatt of fusion power in a controlled way; (ii) to validate transport codes and provide a basis for accurately predicting the performance of deuterium-tritium plasma from measurements made in deuterium plasmas; (iii) to determine tritium retention in the torus systems and to establish the effectiveness of discharge cleaning techniques for tritium removal; (iv) to demonstrate the technology related to tritium usage; and (v) to establish safe procedures for handling tritium in compliance with the regulatory requirements. A single-null X-point magnetic configuration, diverted onto the upper carbon target, with reversed toroidal magnetic field was chosen. Deuterium plasmas were heated by high power, long duration deuterium neutral beams from fourteen sources and fuelled also by up to two neutral beam sources injecting tritium. The results from three of these high performance hot ion H-mode discharges are described: a high performance pure deuterium discharge; a deuterium-tritium discharge with a 1% mixture of tritium fed to one neutral beam source; and a deuterium-tritium discharge with 100% tritium fed to two neutral beam sources. The TRANSP code was used to check the internal consistency of the measured data and to determine the origin of the measured neutron fluxes. In the best deuterium-tritium discharge, the tritium concentration was about 11% at the time of peak performance, when the total neutron emission rate was 6.0 x 10(17) neutrons/s. The integrated total neutron yield over the high power phase, which lasted about 2 s, was 7.2 x 10(17) neutrons, with an accuracy of +/- 7%. The actual fusion amplification factor, Q(DT), was about 0.15. With an optimum tritium concentration, this pulse would have produced a fusion power of almost-equal-to 5 MW and a nominal Q(DT) almost-equal-to 0.46. The same extrapolation for the pure deuterium discharge would have given almost-equal-to 11 MW and a nominal Q(DT) = 1.14, so that the total fusion power (neutrons and alpha-particles) would have exceeded the total losses in the equivalent deuterium-tritium discharge in these transient conditions. Techniques for introducing, tracking, monitoring and recovering tritium were demonstrated to be highly effective: essentially all of the tritium introduced into the neutral beam system and, so far, about two thirds of that introduced into the torus have been recovered.
VL - 32
SN - 0029-5515
U5 - e65831798ed0c55ed964fef6ea71d10c
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Resolving Apparent Differences between Heat and Density Pulse-Propagation in Jet and Text
JF - Nuclear Fusion
Y1 - 1991
A1 - Sips, A.C.C.
A1 - Hogeweij, G. M. D.
A1 - Costley, A. E.
A1 - Orourke, J.
A1 - Cardozo, N. J. L.
A1 - Dehaas, J. C. M.
AB - Sawtooth induced heat and density pulse measurements reported in the literature for the JET and TEXT experiments are discussed. In JET the heat pulse travels ten times faster than the density pulse, but in TEXT both pulses travel at the same speed. The measurements are analysed using coupled transport equations for energy and particles. It is shown that the different behaviour of the density pulse in the two experiments can be attributed to differences in the off-diagonal elements of the transport matrix. If the perturbed fluxes of heat and particles are expressed as linear combinations of the thermodynamic forces del p and del T (rather than del n and del T), the corresponding transport matrices are remarkably similar. However, minor differences in this transport matrix between JET and TEXT account for the qualitative difference in the density pulses.
VL - 31
SN - 0029-5515
U5 - 19547e46ce640a1902d4a9b7e95f8d7a
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Tokamak Transport Studies Using Perturbation Analysis
JF - Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Y1 - 1990
A1 - Cardozo, N. J. L.
A1 - Dehaas, J. C. M.
A1 - Hogeweij, G. M. D.
A1 - Orourke, J.
A1 - Sips, A.C.C.
A1 - Tubbing, B. J. D.
AB - Studies of the transport properties of tokamak plasmas using perturbation analysis are discussed. The focus is on experiments with not too large perturbations, such as sawtooth induced heat and density pulse propagation, power modulation and oscillatory gas-puff experiments. The approximations made in the standard analysis of such experiments are made explicit and are discussed. References are given to papers that deal with specific aspects of the theory. Points of agreement as well as discrepancies between different experiments and gaps in the experimental data base are highlighted. The analysis of cross-coupling between electron thermal and particle transport using simultaneous measurements of heat and density pulses in JET is discussed, as an illustration of the potentiality to measure off-diagonal elements of the transport matrix in perturbative experiments.
VL - 32
SN - 0741-3335
U5 - 087fa0a80f506ade51eaf49ac0335812
ER -